- A Unique Technique of Particle Characterization
- Individual Particle Analysis (IPA) conducted by Scanning electron microscopy interfaced with Automated image analysis and X-ray microanalysis (SAX)
- IPA/SAX has the advantage over conventional bulk measures such as total suspended solids (TSS). The technique has the capability to
- Characterize individual particles both morphometrically (size, area, and shape) and chemically (in terms of elemental X-ray composition);
- Classify suspensoids into generic particle types to resolve origins of suspended sediments;
- Determine particle size distribution (unlimited in the submicron range);
- Calculate particle cross-sectional area per unit volume of water (PAV; m-1) to evaluate the impacts of particles on water clarity;
- Identify important particle size/type components contributing to light scattering (turbidity);
- Assess origins of particles, and their associations with and transport of toxins or other substances.
Since 1996, this technique has been applied to study the suspended particles in New York City's drinking water reservoirs. Other study systems include Onondaga Lake, Finger Lakes, and Seneca River.
- This particle is classified into one of the defined particle categories based on its elemental X-ray composition (relative X-ray intensities).
- Particle morphometry is measured (in Ám).
- Particles are grouped into geochemically significant particle classes.
- Selected publications of the IPA/SAX applications
Yin, C., and D.L. Johnson (1984), An individual particle analysis and budget study of Onondaga Lake sediments, Limnology and Oceanography, 29 (6), 1193-1201.
Johnson, D.L., J. Jiao, S.G. DosSantos, and S.W. Effler (1991), Individual particle analysis of suspended materials in Onondaga lake, New York, Environmental Science and Technology, 25 (4), 736-744.
Effler, S.W., M. Perkins, N. Ohrazda, D.A. Matthews, R. Gelda, F. Peng, D.L. Johnson, and C.L. Stephczuk (2002), Tripton, transparency and light penetration in seven New York reservoirs, Hydrobiologia, 468 (1-3), 213-232.
Peng, F., D.L. Johnson, and S.W. Effler (2002), Suspensoids in New York City's drinking water reservoirs: Turbidity apportionment, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 38 (5), 1453-1465.
Peng, F., D.L. Johnson, and S.W. Effler (2004), Characterization of inorganic particles in selected reservoirs and tributaries of the New York City water supply, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 40 (3), 663-676.
Peng, F., and S.W. Effler (2005), Inorganic tripton in the Finger Lakes of New York: importance to optical characteristics, Hydrobiologia, 543, 259-277.
Peng, F. and S. W. Effler. 2007. Suspended minerogenic particles in a reservoir: Light-scattering features from individual particle analysis. Limnology and Oceanography 52(1):204-216